Skip Headers
Oracle® Database Net Services Reference
12c Release 1 (12.1)

E17611-12
Go to Documentation Home
Home
Go to Book List
Book List
Go to Table of Contents
Contents
Go to Index
Index
Go to Master Index
Master Index
Go to Feedback page
Contact Us

Go to previous page
Previous
Go to next page
Next
PDF · Mobi · ePub

8 Oracle Connection Manager Parameters (cman.ora)

This chapter provides a complete listing of the cman.ora file configuration parameters.

This chapter contains the following topics:

Overview of Oracle Connection Manager Configuration File

Oracle Connection Manager configuration information is stored in the cman.ora file, and consists of the following elements:

  • Protocol address of the Oracle Connection Manager listener

  • Access control parameters

  • Performance parameters

By default, the cman.ora file is located in the ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory. The cman.ora file can also be stored in the following locations:

  • The directory specified by the TNS_ADMIN environment variable or registry value.

  • On Linux and UNIX operating systems, the global configuration directory. For example, on the Oracle Solaris operating system, this directory is /var/opt/oracle.

    See Also:

Example 8-1 shows an sample of a cman.ora file.

Example 8-1 Sample cman.ora File

CMAN=
  (CONFIGURATION=
    (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=proxysvr)(PORT=1521))
    (RULE_LIST=
      (RULE=(SRC=192.0.2.32/27)(DST=sales-server)(SRV=*)(ACT=accept))
        (ACTION_LIST=(AUT=on)(MCT=120)(MIT=30)))
      (RULE=(SRC=foo)(DST=hr-server)(SRV=cmon)(ACT=accept)))
    (PARAMETER_LIST=
      (MAX_GATEWAY_PROCESSES=8)
      (MIN_GATEWAY_PRCESSSES=3)
      (DIAG_ADR_ENABLED=ON)
      (ADR_BASE=/oracle/log)))

The cman.ora configuration file consists of the following sections:

  • Listening address: Preceded by ADDRESS=, this section contains information pertinent to the listener. The ADDRESS parameter is required.

  • Rule list: Preceded by RULE_LIST=, this section contains rule information. The RULE parameter is listed in the rule list section of the file. The RULE parameter is required.

  • Parameter list: Preceded by PARAMETER_LIST=, this section contains all other parameters including those listed in "ADR Diagnostic Parameters for Oracle Connection Manager", and "Non-ADR Diagnostic Parameters for Oracle Connection Manager".

    The following parameters are allowed in the parameter list section of the cman.ora file. The default values are bold. To override the default setting for a parameter, enter the parameter and a nondefault value.

    ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER={off | on}

    CONNECTION_STATISTICS={no | yes}

    EVENT_GROUP={init_and_term | memory_ops | conn_hdlg | proc_mgmt | reg_and_load | wake_up | timer | cmd_proc | relay}

    IDLE_TIMEOUT=0 or greater

    INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=0 or greater. The default value is 60.

    LOG_DIRECTORY=log_directory. The default value is ORACLE_HOME/network/log.

    LOG_LEVEL={off | user | admin | support}

    MAX_CMCTL_SESSIONS= Any positive number. The default value is 4.

    MAX_CONNECTIONS= A value between 1 and 1024. The default value is 256.

    MAX_GATEWAY_PROCESSES= Any number greater than the minimum number of gateway processes up to 64. The default value is 16.

    MIN_GATEWAY_PROCESSES= Any positive number less than or equal to 64. Must be less than or equal to the maximum number of gateway processes. The default value is 2.

    OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=0 or greater

    PASSWORD_instance_name= Value is the encrypted instance password, if one has been set. The default value is no value.

    SESSION_TIMEOUT=0 or greater

    TRACE_DIRECTORY=trace_directory. The default value is ORACLE_HOME/network/trace.

    TRACE_FILELEN= Any positive number. The default value is 0 (zero).

    TRACE_FILENO= Any positive number. The default value is 0 (zero).

    TRACE_LEVEL={off | user | admin | support}

    TRACE_TIMESTAMP={off | on}

    Notes:

    You cannot add the parameter PASSWORD_instance_name directly to the cman.ora file. The parameter is added using the SAVE_PASSWD command.

Example 8-2 shows the parameter list section of a cman.ora file.

Example 8-2 Parameter List Section of a cman.ora File

   (PARAMETER_LIST= 
      (ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER=ON)
      (CONNECTION_STATISTICS=NO)
      (EVENT_GROUP=INIT_AND_TERM,MEMORY_OPS,PROCESS_MGMT)
      (IDLE_TIMEOUT=30)
      (INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=30)
      (LOG_DIRECTORY=/home/user/network/admin/log)   
      (LOG_LEVEL=SUPPORT)
      (MAX_CMCTL_SESSIONS=6)
      (MAX_CONNECTIONS=512)
      (MAX_GATEWAY_PROCESSES=10)
      (MIN_GATEWAY_PROCESSES=4)
      (OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=30)
      (SESSION_TIMEOUT=60)
      (TRACE_DIRECTORY=/home/user/network/admin/trace)
      (TRACE_FILELEN=100)
      (TRACE_FILENO=2)
      (TRACE_LEVEL=SUPPORT)
      (TRACE_TIMESTAMP=ON))

Oracle Connection Manager Parameters

This section lists and describes the following cman.ora file parameters:

ADDRESS

Purpose

To specify the protocol address of Oracle Connection Manager.

Syntax

(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=protocol)(HOST=host_name)(PORT=port_number)

Example


(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=sales-server)(PORT=1521))

ASO_AUTHENTICATION_FILTER

Purpose

To specify whether Oracle Database security authentication settings must be used by the client.

Usage Notes

The global setting can be overridden by a rule-level setting in ACTION_LIST.

Values

  • on to instruct Oracle Connection Manager to reject connection requests that are not using Secure Network Services (SNS). SNS is part of Oracle Database security.

  • off to instruct Oracle Connection Manager not to check for SNS between the client and server. This is the default.

CONNECTION_STATISTICS

Purpose

To specify whether the SHOW_CONNECTIONS command displays connection statistics.

Usage Notes

The global setting can be overridden by a rule-level setting in ACTION_LIST.

Values

  • yes to display statistics.

  • no to not display statistics. This is the default.

EVENT_GROUP

Purpose

To specify which event groups are logged.

Usage Notes

Multiple events may be designated using a comma-delimited list.

Values

  • alert for alert notifications.

  • cmd_proc for command processing.

  • conn_hdlg for connection handling.

  • init_and_term for initialization and termination.

  • memory_ops for memory operations.

  • proc_mgmt for process management.

  • reg_and_load for registration and load update.

  • relay for events associated with connection control blocks.

  • timer for gateway timeouts.

  • wake_up for events related to Connection Manager Administration (CMADMIN) wake-up queue.

Note:

The event group ALERT cannot be turned off.

IDLE_TIMEOUT

Purpose

To specify the amount of time that an established connection can remain active without transmitting data.

Usage Notes

The global setting can be overridden by a rule-level setting in ACTION_LIST.

Values

  • 0 to disable the timeout. This is the default.

  • Any number greater than 0 to enable the timeout. The number equals the timeout period in seconds.

INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT

Purpose

To specify how long in seconds the Oracle Connection Manager listener waits for a valid connection from a client or another instance of Oracle Connection Manager.

Values

  • 60 to disable the timeout. This is the default.

  • Any number greater than 0 to enable the timeout. The number equals the timeout period in seconds.

LOG_DIRECTORY

Purpose

To specify the directory for the Oracle Connection Manager log files.

LOG_LEVEL

Purpose

To specify the level for log messages.

Values

  • off for no logging. This is the default.

  • user for user-induced errors log information.

  • admin for administration log information, such as installation-specific.

  • support for Oracle Support Services information.

MAX_ALL_CONNECTIONS

Purpose

To specify the maximum number of concurrent registration and client connection sessions that can be supported by Oracle Connection Manager.

Usage Notes

This number includes registration connections from databases, and ongoing client connection establishment requests. After a connection is established, the clients do not maintain a connection to the listener. This limit only applies to client connections that are in the initial connection establishment phase from a listener perspective.

Default

Operating system-specific

Example

MAX_ALL_CONNECTIONS=40

MAX_CMCTL_SESSIONS

Purpose

To specify the maximum number of concurrent local or remote sessions of the Oracle Connection Manager control utility allowable for a given instance.

Usage Notes

One of the sessions must be a local session.

Values

Any number of sessions can be designated.

MAX_CONNECTIONS

Purpose

To specify the maximum number of connection slots that a gateway process can handle.

Values

Any number in the range of 1 to 1024.

MAX_GATEWAY_PROCESSES

Purpose

To specify the maximum number of gateway processes that an instance of Oracle Connection Manager supports.

Values

The number designated must be greater than the minimum number of gateway processes. The maximum is 64.

MAX_REG_CONNECTIONS

Purpose

To specify the maximum number of concurrent registration connection sessions that can be supported by Oracle Connection Manager.

Default

512

Example

MAX_REG_CONNECTIONS=20

MIN_GATEWAY_PROCESSES

Purpose

To specify the minimum number of gateway processes that an instance of Oracle Connection Manager supports.

Values

Any number of sessions can be designated up to 64.

OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT

Purpose

To specify the length of time in seconds that the Oracle Connection Manager instance waits for a valid connection to be established with the database server or with another Oracle Connection Manager instance.

Values

  • 60 to disable the timeout. This is the default.

  • Any number greater than 0 to enable the timeout. The number equals the timeout period in seconds.

PASSWORD_instance_name

Purpose

To specify the encrypted instance password, if one has been set.

REGISTRATION_EXCLUDED_NODES

Purpose

To specify the list of nodes that cannot register with the listener.

Usage Notes

The list can include host names or CIDR notation for IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. The wildcard format (*) is supported for IPv4 addresses. The presence of a host name in the list results in the inclusion of all IP addresses mapped to the host name. The host name should be consistent with the public network interface.

If the REGISTRATION_INVITED_NODES parameter and the REGISTRATION_EXCLUDED_NODES parameter are set, then the REGISTRATION_EXCLUDED_NODES parameter is ignored.

Values

Valid nodes and subnet IP addresses or names.

Example

REGISTRATION_EXCLUDED_NODES = (10.1.26.*, 10.16.40.0/24, \
                                       2001:DB8:3eff:fe38, node2)

REGISTRATION_INVITED_NODES

Purpose

To specify the list of node that can register with the listener.

Usage Notes

The list can include host names or CIDR notation for IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. The wildcard format (*) is supported for IPv4 addresses. The presence of a host name in the list results in the inclusion of all IP addresses mapped to the host name. The host name should be consistent with the public network interface.

If the REGISTRATION_INVITED_NODES parameter and the REGISTRATION_EXCLUDED_NODES parameter are set, then the REGISTRATION_EXCLUDED_NODES parameter is ignored.

Values

Valid nodes and subnet IP addresses or names.

Example

REGISTRATION_INVITED_NODES = (10.1.35.*, 10.1.34.0/24, \
                                      2001:DB8:fe38:7303, node1)

RULE

Purpose

To specify an access control rule list to filter incoming connections.

Usage Notes

A rule list specifies which connections are accepted, rejected, or dropped.

If no rules are specified, then all connections are rejected.

The source and destination can be a host name, IP address, or subnet mask.

There must be at least one rule for client connections and one rule for CMCTL connections. Omitting one or the other results in the rejection of all connections for the rule type omitted. The last rule in the example that follows is a CMCTL rule.

Oracle Connection Manager does not support wildcards for partial IP addresses. If you use a wildcard, then use it in place of a full IP address. The IP address of the client may, for example, be (SRC=*).

Oracle Connection Manager supports only the /nn notation for subnet addresses. In the first rule in Example 8-1, /27 represents a subnet mask that comprises 27 left-most bits.

Values

This parameter is listed in the rule list section of the cman.ora file preceded by RULE_LIST=.

Syntax

(RULE_LIST=
  (RULE=
    (SRC=host)
    (DST=host)
    (SRV=service_name)
    (ACT={accept|reject|drop})
    (ACTION_LIST=AUT={on|off}
    ((CONN_STATS={yes|no})(MCT=time)(MIT=time)(MOCT=time)))
  (RULE= ...))

Additional Parameters

The RULE parameter filters a connection or group of connections using the following parameters:

SRC: The source host name or IP address of the client.

DST: The destination server host name or IP address of the database server.

SRV: The database service name of Oracle Database obtained from the SERVICE_NAME parameter in the initialization parameter file.

ACT: The action for the connection request. Use accept to accept incoming requests, reject to reject incoming requests, or drop to reject incoming requests without sending an error message.

ACTION_LIST: The rule-level parameter settings for some parameters. These parameters are as follows:

  • AUT: Oracle Database security authentication on client side.

  • CONN_STATS: Log input and output statistics.

  • MCT: Maximum connect time.

  • MIT: Maximum idle timeout.

  • MOCT: Maximum outbound connect time.

Rule-level parameters override their global counterparts.

Example

(RULE_LIST=
  (RULE=
    (SRC=client1-pc)
    (DST=sales-server)
    (SRV=sales.us.example.com)
    (ACT=reject))
  (RULE=
    (SRC=192.0.2.45)
    (DST=192.0.2.200)
    (SRV=db1)
    (ACT=accept))
  (RULE=
    (SRC=sale-rep)
    (DST=sales1-server)
    (SRV=cmon)
    (ACT=accept)))

SESSION_TIMEOUT

Purpose

To specify the maximum time in seconds allowed for a user session.

Usage Notes

The global setting can be overridden by a rule-level setting in ACTION_LIST.

Values

  • 0 to disable the timeout. This is the default.

  • Any number greater than 0 to enable the timeout. The number equals the timeout period in seconds.

TRACE_FILE

Purpose

To specify the directory for Oracle Connection Manager trace files.

TRACE_FILELEN

Purpose

To specify the size of the trace file in KB.

Usage Notes

When the size is reached, the trace information is written to the next file. The number of files is specified with the TRACE_FILENO parameter.

TRACE_FILENO

Purpose

To specify the number of trace files.

Usage Notes

When this parameter is set along with the TRACE_FILELEN parameter, trace files are used in a cyclical fashion. The first file is filled first, then the second file, and so on. When the last file has been filled, the first file is reused, and so on.

TRACE_LEVEL

Purpose

To specify the level for trace messages.

Values

  • off for no tracing. This is the default.

  • user for user-induced errors trace information.

  • admin for administration trace information, such as installation-specific.

  • support for Oracle Support Services information.

TRACE_TIMESTAMP

Purpose

To specify the use of a timestamp for the tracing logs.

Usage Notes

If the TRACING parameter is enabled, then a time stamp in the form of dd-mmm-yyyy hh:mi:ss:mil for every trace event in the trace file.

Values

  • off for no timestamp to be included in the file.

  • on for timestamp to be included in the file.

VALID_NODE_CHECKING_REGISTRATION

Purpose

To determine whether valid node checking registration is performed, or the subnet is allowed.

Usage Notes

When set to on, valid node checking registration is performed at the listener for any incoming registration request, and only local IP addresses are allowed.

Default

off

Values

  • off | 0 to specify valid node checking registration is off, and no checking is performed.

  • on | 1 | local to specify valid node checking registration is on, and all local IP addresses can register. If a list of invited nodes is set, then all IP addresses, host names, or subnets in the list as well as local IP addresses are allowed.

  • subnet | 2 to specify valid node checking registration is on, and all machines in the local subnets are allowed to register. If a list of invited nodes is set, then all nodes in the local subnets as well as all IP addresses, host names and subnets in the list are allowed.

Example

VALID_NODE_CHECKING_REGISTRATION = on

ADR Diagnostic Parameters for Oracle Connection Manager

Since Oracle Database 11g, Oracle Database includes an advanced fault diagnosability infrastructure for preventing, detecting, diagnosing, and resolving problems. The problems are critical errors such as those caused by database code bugs, metadata corruption, and customer data corruption.

When a critical error occurs, it is assigned an incident number, and diagnostic data for the error, such as traces and dumps, are immediately captured and tagged with the incident number. The data is then stored in the Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR), a file-based repository outside the database.

This section describes the parameters used when ADR is enabled. Non-ADR parameters listed in the cman.ora file are ignored when ADR is enabled. "Non-ADR Diagnostic Parameters for Oracle Connection Manager" describes the parameters used when ADR is disabled. ADR is enabled by default.

ADR_BASE

Purpose

To specify the base directory to store tracing and logging incidents when ADR is enabled.

Default

The default is ORACLE_BASE, or ORACLE_HOME/log if ORACLE_BASE is not defined.

Values

Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.

Example

ADR_BASE=/oracle/network/trace

DIAG_ADR_ENABLED

Purpose

To indicate whether ADR tracing is enabled.

Usage Notes

When the DIAG_ADR_ENABLED parameter is set to OFF, then non-ADR file tracing is used.

Values

on | off

Example

DIAG_ADR_ENABLED=on

LOG_LEVEL

Purpose

To specify the level of logging performed by Oracle Connection Manager.

Usage Notes

This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR logging is used.

The following log files are used with Oracle Connection Manager:

  • instance-name_pid.log for the listener.

  • instance-name_cmadmin_pid.log for CMADMIN.

  • instance-name_cmgw_pid.log for the gateway processes.

The log files are located in the ORACLE_HOME/network/log directory.

Default

off or 0

Values

  • off or 0 for no log output.

  • user or 4 for user log information.

  • admin or 10 for administration log information.

  • support or 16 for Oracle Support Services log information.

Example

LOG_LEVEL=admin

TRACE_LEVEL

Purpose

To specify the trace level for the Oracle Connection Manager instance.

Usage Notes

This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing is used.

The following trace files are used with Oracle Connection Manager:

  • instance-name_pid.trc for the listener.

  • instance-name_cmadmin_pid.trc for CMADMIN.

  • instance-name_cmgw_pid.trc for the gateway processes.

The log files are located in the ORACLE_HOME/network/log directory.

Default

off

Values

  • off for no trace output.

  • user for user trace information.

  • admin for administration trace information.

  • support for Oracle Support Services trace information.

Example

TRACE_LEVEL=admin

TRACE_TIMESTAMP

Purpose

To add a time stamp in the form of dd-mmm-yyyy hh:mi:ss:mil to every trace event in the trace file for the listener.

Usage Notes

This parameter is used with the TRACE_LEVEL parameter. This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing is used.

Default

on

Values

  • on or true

  • off or false

Example

TRACE_TIMESTAMP=true

Non-ADR Diagnostic Parameters for Oracle Connection Manager

This section lists the parameters used when ADR is disabled:

Notes:

The default value of DIAG_ADR_ENABLED is on. Therefore, the DIAG_ADR_ENABLED parameter must explicitly be set to off in order for non-ADR tracing to be used.

LOG_DIRECTORY

Purpose

To specify the location of Oracle Connection Manager log files.

Usage Notes

Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

ORACLE_HOME/network/log

Values

Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.

Example

LOG_DIRECTORY=/oracle/network/log

TRACE_DIRECTORY

Purpose

To specify the location of the Oracle Connection Manager trace files.

Usage Notes

Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

ORACLE_HOME/network/trace 

Values

Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.

Example

TRACE_DIRECTORY=/oracle/network/admin/trace

TRACE_FILELEN

Purpose

To specify the size, in KB, of the trace file.

Usage Notes

When the size is met, the trace information is written to the next file. The number of files is specified with the TRACE_FILENO parameter. Any size can be designated. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

Unlimited

Example

TRACE_FILELEN=100

TRACE_FILENO

Purpose

To specify the number of trace files for Oracle Connection Manager tracing.

Usage Notes

When this parameter is set along with the TRACE_FILELEN parameter, trace files are used in a cyclical fashion. The first file is filled first, then the second file, and so on. When the last file has been filled, the first file is reused, and so on. Any number of files can be designated.

The trace file names are distinguished from one another by their sequence number. For example, if this parameter is set to 3, then the gateway trace files would be named instance-name_cmgw1_pid.trc, instance_name_cmgw2_pid.trc and instance_name_cmgw3_pid.trc.

In addition, trace events in the trace files are preceded by the sequence number of the file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

1

Example

TRACE_FILENO=3